This medical practice and its affiliates—RCOG Cancer Centers LLC, Physician Oncology Services Management Company LLC, Frank A. Critz, M.D., and Physician Oncology Services L.P. (collectively, RCOG)—agreed to pay $3.8 million to settle claims that they allegedly billed Medicare for medical treatment provided to prostate cancer patients in excess of those permitted by Medicare rules and for services that were not medically necessary. Our relator—a physicist—alleged that RCOG overbilled Medicare for port films (X-ray images of the treatment area) and for simulations (the process by which radiation treatment fields are defined, filmed, and marked on the skin in preparation for radiation therapy), as well as overbilling for physics consults and for pre-plans that were ordered but not medically necessary and/or never reviewed by the doctor.